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Why is the assembly house so hot?
编辑:Qingdao Green Integrated Housing Co., Ltd  时间:2017-08-03
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This year, the promotion and development of prefabricated houses across the country is in full swing. Many companies have been eager to try and invest in it; but some companies are still on the sidelines, because at this stage, the cost of fabricated houses is high and the technical difficulty is relatively large, which is a well-known problem. This paper explains from the foreign development status of assembly-type buildings, domestic development situation, assembly and traditional energy-saving evaluation data, why the development of assembly is an inevitable trend of architectural transformation.

The status quo of foreign assembled building development

1. The United States large area, diversified development, and wide application of prestressed prefabricated components

American fabricated houses are prevalent in 1970s. According to the statistics of the American Industrial Housing Association, in 2001, the number of fabricated houses in the United States has reached 10 million, accounting for 7% of the total US housing.

Second, Germany - 90% of industrialization in East Germany in the 1970s, is a country with a high level of industrialization

The German-style assembly houses mainly adopt a composite structure of laminated plates, concrete and shear walls. It adopts component assembly and concrete structure and has good durability. Germany is the fastest-growing country in terms of building energy consumption. In recent years, it has proposed the development of passive buildings with zero energy consumption. From large-scale energy-saving to passive construction, Germany has adopted prefabricated houses to implement, and the prefabricated houses and energy-saving standards are fully integrated with each other. After the Second World War, the multi-storey assembly house was 90% in the industrialization of East Germany in the 1970s;

3. Japan has the most wood structure, the framework is the main, and the seismic technology is preferred

Japan in 1968 The concept of a prefabricated house was proposed in the year. In 1990, it launched a mid- to high-rise residential production system that adopts componentized, industrialized production methods, high production efficiency, variable internal structure of the house, and adapts to various needs of residents. In the process of promoting scale and industrial restructuring, the housing industry has undergone a process of continuous evolution and improvement from standardization, diversification, industrialization to intensification and informationization.



The status quo of China's prefabricated houses
At present, China's prefabricated houses mainly include: prefabricated concrete assembly (PC) Building); steel structure; wood structure assembly. This article mainly introduces the PC architecture that is currently concerned about high.

(1) The PC building has great advantages, the PC factory has begun to take shape, the eastern coastal city is leading the mainland, and the development is relatively good. PC building is one of the representatives of low-energy green buildings, which is decreasing. It has outstanding performance in energy consumption and resource conservation. Compared with the traditional production method of cast-in-place concrete, it has great advantages in many aspects such as production efficiency and engineering quality.

The domestic PC construction industry has begun to take shape. By the end of 2015, there were 104 PC factories and 56 industrialization bases in the country, mainly distributed in coastal cities such as Shandong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shanghai, etc. less. At the same time, 16 new PC factories were built in 2015, mainly in Sichuan, Shanghai and Hunan.

(2) The PC construction market has huge capacity: nearly 500 million square meters of new construction area, 3 trillion yuan of output value, and 1.5 million sets of affordable housing. PC building has huge room for development in China. According to the "Outline for the Modernization of the Construction Industry", during the "13th Five-Year Plan" period, the prefabricated buildings should reach more than 20% of the new buildings, and the affordable housing should be more than 40%.

Note: The information comes from the "Outline of Modernization of Construction Industry"

By the end of 2015, 7.83 million sets of new affordable housing units will be built nationwide. In 2015, the newly-built construction area reached 4.684 billion square meters, and the national construction industry's total output value reached 18.07 trillion yuan. Assuming that the new construction area of the construction industry will be basically the same in 2015, the construction area of the prefabricated buildings will reach 987 million square meters, and PC construction will account for 50% of the total. The new construction area of PC buildings will be 494 million. Square meters.
Assume that the output value of the construction industry is growing at a rate of 9% (the average of the past three years). It is estimated that the total output value of the construction industry will reach 27.81 trillion yuan in 2020, and the output value of PC buildings will be 2.83 trillion yuan.
It is assumed that the number of affordable housing construction will remain stable. It is estimated that by 2020, the number of affordable housing constructed with precast concrete is expected to reach 1.5 million units.
Evaluation of energy consumption for PC buildings and cast-in-place houses

Since assembly and cast-in type are two completely different production methods, according to the assembly of the current Shanghai pilot The calculation of residential projects, the production and construction of prefabricated buildings can be achieved as shown in the following figure. The energy consumption of traditional construction methods accounts for about 30% of the national energy consumption, and construction waste accounts for 30% to 40% of the total urban waste. The decoration accounted for about 6%.

The following is an analysis of the energy efficiency of a prefabricated house with actual projects:

(1)         1. Overview of the evaluation project A project in Beijing: the total land area of the plot is 40,603 m2, the plot ratio is 2.0, and the total floor area is 81,206 m2. The floor area of the 1# building is 8413 m2, and the building height is 36.4 m; 2#, 4 #,5# The floor area of the building is 9243m2, the building height is 33.6m; the floor area of the 7# and 8# buildings is 11,641m2, and the building height is 42m. The 1#, 2#, 4#, 5#, 7#, and 8# buildings are equipped with an integrated shear wall structure system with a seismic rating of two. The exterior wall panel is made of prefabricated sandwich insulation exterior wall panel, and the insulation board is a 50-thick flame-retardant extruded polystyrene board. The vertical connection of the steel bars is made by a steel sleeve grouting connection. 2, evaluation content

(2)         Prefabricated and cast-in-place houses exist in the production method and construction process The different components are the key comparison objects, including exterior walls, slabs, stairs, balconies, bay windows, air conditioning panels and balcony trim panels. The scope of evaluation of prefabricated houses is determined to include the production of prefabricated components and construction and installation. The scope of the cast-in-place residential evaluation includes material processing processes (such as commercial concrete mixing) and on-site construction and installation processes. In short, from the perspective of resource consumption level, the advantages of prefabricated houses are mainly reflected in the amount of mortar, wood, insulation board and other materials, and there is no advantage in the consumption of main materials such as steel and concrete compared to cast-in-place houses. In terms of energy consumption and waste generation, prefabricated houses have obvious advantages over cast-in-place houses.

Summary
Compared with traditional construction industry production methods, industrial production has obvious advantages in design, construction, decoration, acceptance, project management and other aspects. From a global perspective, greening, informatization and industrialization are the three major trends in the development of the construction industry. The assembly-type housing is in line with this trend, and it is also an important part of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the Sino-US Joint Statement. China has become the world's second largest economy and has the largest construction market in the world. In terms of social development, economic foundation, and scientific and technological level, it has the conditions for the development of prefabricated houses. The State Council's guiding opinions on vigorously developing prefabricated buildings put forward eight major tasks. It is the strongest voice of the Chinese government to implement the five development concepts and vigorously develop the prefabricated buildings. It is also a solemn commitment to the world. The ultimate goal of the transformation and upgrading of the construction industry is the modernization of the construction industry. It is based on the industrialization of construction, combined with technological innovation, modern management and information technology to realize the transformation and upgrading of the entire industrial chain. Quality and economic efficiency of construction engineering. At present, China's construction industrialization rate is less than 7%. The historical experience of foreign countries shows that China's building industrialization is still in the initial stage with huge room for improvement. The development of prefabricated houses is the general trend of China's construction industry transformation! It is believed that with the improvement of technology and the improvement of management level, the prefabricated building will have a broad market and space. This is the reason why assembly houses are currently relatively hot in China.

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