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The main content and process of prefabricated house design
编辑:Qingdao Green Integrated Housing Co., Ltd  时间:2018-10-12

1. Building Portfolio Design

        Assembled HouseModular Design It is "the combination of a unit with a specific function as a versatile module and other product elements to form a new unit, resulting in a series of combinations of different functions or functions with different functions." Modularity is a systematic method and Tools, modular design can make the product into a series, which is conducive to later derivative development (serialization). Standardized components allow products to enter high-efficiency flow production, saving development and production costs (standardization). There is a specific digital relationship (modulo) between the modules, which can be combined into a variety of morphological modes (diversification). There is a general relationship between modules, which may act as different roles (generalization) in different situations. The prefabricated building space can be designed in a modular way, and the basic unit modules of a public building generally refer to standard structural spaces. The residential building is a basic unit module. Modules should be composed of components that can be combined, disassembled, and replaced.

Second, fa ade design

        The exterior wall of the prefabricated house is made up of various prefabricated components. The fa ade design should reflect the typical characteristics of factory production and assembly construction. We must also diversify on the basis of adhering to standardized design and avoid “one size fits all” and “one thousand floors”. It is necessary to control the type and quantity by utilizing the characteristics of standardized, modular and serialized apartment combinations. Handling the relationship between the fa ade design and the prefabricated components, the fa ade design is the whole, the prefabricated components are local, and the fa ade is the integration and unification of the whole and the part. Diversification of the form of the facade is an important aspect of prefabricated architectural design. The first is the diversification of the combination; through the diversified combination of standard modules, the changes in the shape and space of the building are realized. Secondly, it is the change of "layer"; the fa ade consists of prefabricated exterior walls, prefabricated balconies and air-conditioning panels, prefabricated parapet walls, prefabricated roofs and entrance components, exterior doors and windows, guardrails, sunshades, air-conditioning panels and other elements. In the design, the geometrical dimensions of the external wall are regarded as a constant part, and the geometrical dimensions of the prefabricated external wall standard modules are kept constant to meet the scale requirements of the factory production. The color, texture, texture, unevenness, component combination, and order of the prefabricated components and the outer surface of the component are variable. The fa ade design can be used to achieve a variety of facade forms such as decorative concrete, fair-faced concrete, paint, tile or stone counter-attack, different color exterior wall finishes, etc. Prefabricated balconies and air-conditioning panels can pass depth, width and space. And so on to achieve diversity. Non-structural components and components such as prefabricated hanging panels, air conditioning partitions, louvers, doors and windows, exterior wall components and railings can achieve diverse goals with more individual means.

Three, graphic design points analysis

        Prefabricated residential flat design should follow the modular coordination principle to optimize the size and type of the module. Standardize, serialize and generalize residential prefabricated components and interior components, improve the supporting application technology of residential industrialization, improve project quality and reduce construction costs. In the design stage of the residential building, the space is divided according to different use functions, and the set modules and their combinations are determined according to the requirements of design specifications, project positioning and industrialization goals. The planar design forms a standardized functional module by studying the modular series of the assembled structural characteristics of the project, and then forms a set of modular modules suitable for industrial construction in combination with actual positioning requirements, and the combined modular modules are combined to form the final unit module. The plane of the building should be arranged in a plane layout with large space, and the position of the load-bearing wall and the tube well should be reasonably arranged to realize the flexibility and variability of the residential space. The functional space partitions within the set are clear and the layout is reasonable. Through the reasonable structure selection, the appearance of the load-bearing wall inside the sleeve is reduced, and the inner functional space of the sleeve is divided by the industrial partition wall which is easy to be dismantled.

Fourth, prefabricated component design points

        Prefabricated prefabricated buildings should be designed according to the principles of standardization and modularization. The type of components should be minimized, the standardization of components should be improved, and the project cost should be reduced. For complex parts such as multi-holes, irregular shapes, and descending plates, the method of cast-in-place can be considered. Pay attention to the weight and size of the prefabricated components, taking into account the processing capacity of the components in the project area and the conditions of transportation and lifting. At the same time, the prefabricated members have high durability and fire resistance. Prefabricated components should be designed with due regard to the convenience and feasibility of production and the safety of finished product protection. When the component size is large, the number of pre-embedded lifting points for demolding and lifting of the component should be increased. Prefabricated exterior wall panels should be selected according to the thermal insulation requirements of different regions, and the installation requirements for air-conditioning retaining holes and radiator installation embedded parts should be considered. For non-load-bearing interior walls, partition walls that are light in weight, easy to install, disassemble, and have good sound insulation properties should be used. The indoor space can be flexibly separated according to the function of use. The connection between the non-load bearing inner wall panel and the main structure should be safe and reliable, and meet the requirements of seismic and use. Walls used in wet spaces such as kitchens and bathrooms should be waterproof and easy to clean. The installation and connection of the inner partition wall board with equipment pipelines, sanitary ware, air conditioning equipment and other components should be firm and reliable.

        The prefabricated house's floor should be a combination of slabs, structural conversion layers, planes with complex planes or large openings, basement for the upper structure. The cast-in-place floor should be used on the floor. The joint between the slab and the slab, the slab and the wall shall ensure structural integrity. The overlapping floor slabs should be considered for the reserved and pre-buried equipment pipelines, ceilings and lighting installation points to meet the professional requirements of the equipment.

        The air conditioner outdoor unit shelf should be combined with a prefabricated balcony. The balcony shall determine the exact location of the railing retaining hole, the pre-embedded wire box, the riser hole, the floor drain, etc. The prefabricated stair shall determine the hole and pre-buried of the handrail, and the anti-slip structure of the stair tread shall be formed once in the factory prefabrication, and Take finished product protection measures.

V. Construction node design points

        The structural design of the prefabricated joints is the key to the design of the fabricated concrete shear wall structure. The structural joints and materials used for the joints of prefabricated exterior wall panels, such as joints and doors and windows, shall meet the physical, mechanical, durability and decorative properties of the building. All kinds of joints should be reasonably designed according to the actual conditions of the project and the climate zone, to meet the requirements of waterproofing and energy saving. The vertical seam of the prefabricated exterior wall panel should adopt the combination of material waterproofing and structural waterproofing. The reinforced concrete shearing wall of the load-bearing member should be welded with reserved steel and then cast-in-place joint with anti-seepage concrete; the vertical joint of non-bearing wall can be used. Slotted seams or flat seams, and the horizontal seams of prefabricated exterior wall panels should be seamed or seamed with high or low seams. The width of the joint should be considered by the external environment such as thermal expansion and contraction, wind load and earthquake action.

        The sealant of the siding joint should have compatibility with concrete and the specified shear and telescopic deformation resistance. It should also be mildewproof and waterproof. Material properties such as fire resistance and weather resistance.

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